The cornerstone of Indian indenture was that Indians would be transient labourers in British Guiana; and in that process, they were required to provide five years of labour in exchange for wages, basic housing, a free return passage, and other fringe benefits. Nowhere in their contract was there the opportunity to become land owners.The British Colonial Government in India insisted on the cyclical nature of the indenture system for two basic reasons. One: Indians should have the opportunity to work, save, and bring back remittances to develop themselves and their communities.Two: the right to free return passage should be in all contracts primarily to safeguard the labourers from ill-treatment in their new domicile. If they were ill-treated, then the free return passage would provide the labourers with the option to leave the colony, if so desired.Of course, the colonised Indian Government’s position and policy turned out to be a figment and fragment of imagination, insofar as the labourers were repeatedly abused in their sojourn in British Guiana. The planters’ interests of power, dominance and control permeated the affairs of the colony, not the interests of indentured labourers.So, when Indians left their homeland, hearkened in the back of their minds was the notion that they would return home; and perhaps they did not mind being duped, or even signing contracts to labour in an unknown environment. What they wanted most from their contracts was to become “successful” economic migrants, save a few hundred dollars, and return home. They never wanted to disturb the colonial system. They never wanted land. They never wanted to stay in British Guiana. Why, then, did they become land owners?Indians became land owners because of the changing nature of the indenture, which was not always straightforward. To illustrate: from 1838 to 1851, the circular labour exchange of indentured servants was characterised by suspension and resumption. Indenture started in 1838, but was suspended the same the year. Resumed in 1845, it was suspended again in 1851, and finally abolished in 1917 (immigration) and in 1920 (indenture).The suspensions and abolitions occurred because of the callous treatment the labourers received, the economic crisis of the sugar estate, anti-immigration sentiments, and continuous conflicts between the British Guianese planters and the Colonial Office regarding the rules and regulations of indenture. By 1854, pressure from various watchdog groups helped to push the organisation and supervision of the indenture system from private hands to being state-controlled, removing some inconsistencies and inadvertently setting the platform upon which Indians would become potential land owners.After it was realised that Indians were reliable workers, the organisation and management of indenture shifted with supersonic speed to suit the planter class; namely, to minimise costs and maximise profits. The cost of introducing and returning Indians was targeted. The cost of introducing one Indian indenture to British Guiana in 1908, for example, was around £16. The cost of sending one time-expired Indian back to India was around £10. The planter class argued that the cost of introducing and sending back Indians was too expensive, and Indians should be given the option to re-indenture and receive a $50 bounty, but retain the right to a return passage. The gist of the planters’ argument was: why invest so much in the labourers and then send them back to their home environment, where their plantation experience was less useful? Induce them to stay with the aim to have a cheap labour supply available at the planters’ disposal.The argument was persuasive and offered the first sign that Indians might become settlers in British Guiana; but, contrary to what some think, Indians did not step out of the ship and receive land. From 1850 to 1851, some 2,210 Indians re-indentured for another five years and received $107, 410 bounty. In some ways, the bounty system was more expensive than sending Indians back to their homeland. This was a colonial state problem, not an Indian one. Some Indians used their bounty to buy state land. So far, they did not receive any land, and so far, there is no evidence that they had been taking land from anyone in British Guiana.In 1873, the colonial administration abolished the option to re-indenture, and instead focused on Indian settlement; which again was not based on humanitarian reasons, but to meet the needs of the planter class. Re-indenture was abolished for a host of reasons: (1) the abuse of the immigrants, emanating from the planters’ desire to retain them through inducement rather than obtaining their goodwill; (2) the increase of the fee payable by the planters to the Immigration Fund in regard to each re-indentured Indian — from $120 in 1873 to $200 in 1875; (3) the planters’ determination to avoid the financial responsibility of sending back time-expired indentured Indians. The amount paid for return passages of Indians from 1850 to 1870 was $478,217. To avoid future financial responsibility of sending back Indians, as stated in their contract, the argument for the right of return passage to be exchanged for land grants (5 to 10 acres) preoccupied the Colonial Government, including Sir Charles Bruce, Lieutenant Governor of British Guiana. The colony, he claimed, could only benefit from Indian immigration if the return passages were not included; and this in light of the fact that, among other things, the Indian population in British Guiana was increasing and Indians could use their remittances to develop British Guiana. Land inducement and settlement was a most feasible option. The Colonial Government had made up its mind that Indians would become settlers in British Guiana. Bruce never suggested that Indians would be settled in areas where other ethnic groups owned land. To be continued… (firstname.lastname@example.org).
…for neighboursBack in the day, after Burnham and his PNC experiments had brought the country to its knees, Guyanese fled to every country in the vicinity, and then some. Today there’s probably not a country in the world where you wouldn’t bounce up with a mudlander. But amongst our neighbouring countries, none provided more of a welcoming hand than Venezuela.Trinidad, Barbados and the rest of the islands in the Caribbean are supposed to be our “brothers and sisters”. We share a common culture, which we just supposedly commemorated at Carifesta XVIII. But can we really turn a blind eye to the fact that Trinidad routinely rounded up “illegal” Guyanese and shipped them back home? Can we really forget the “Guyanese Bench” at Grantley Adams Airport in Barbados? We’d been brought low by one of the staunchest “Caribbean Unity Man” – Burnham – but that didn’t cut us any slack, did it?But Venezuela, which was our “enemy,” to whom we denied even a “blade of grass and a spring cuirass”, gave succour, sustenance, and a home to over 50,000 of our countrymen and women. There were no mass deportations…no apartheid bench…and no sneering looks of scorn. Guyanese established communities in Venezuela; they’d periodically visit their homeland with goodies for their starving families. During the days of banned essentials, a healthy trade with Venezuela kept western Guyana afloat.Well, today the shoe’s on the other foot. A government with some startling similarities to the Burnhamite regime has brought down their country to its knees. We can argue they’re also being destabilised as we were in the sixties – but the bottom line for their ordinary citizens is that Venezuela’s now a living hell. Some Venezuelans have begun to come over here to survive – most recently to get treatment in Region 2 for malaria.To its credit, the Government, via its Foreign Minister Greenidge, had signalled they will try to soften our stance from treating these Venezuelans as “illegal immigrants” and deporting them. Greenidge said, “At the policy level, the Government may want to see what can be done. We are looking, for example, at our legislation as it applies to refugees — although in the case of Venezuela, these are not declared refugees — but let me see what can be done.”What we’d like to see done is to quickly work out a humane policy – taking into cognisance the state of our economy. For sure, we cannot afford to have our social services overloaded, but surely we can stop the automatic deportation policy still in effect.Let us work out a credible and humane “good neighbour policy”. They’re not heavy……for the kidsThe little darlings are returning to school today, and as usual, the past weekend was a blur of mothers (and a few fathers!) getting their “back to school” specials. But what about all that angst expressed a few weeks back at the CSEC results?? Likewise after the NGSA results? And that’s the problem, isn’t it?Every year we wring our hands, weep and wail at the miserable results of ninety per cent of our kids, listen to our Education Ministry officials announce “interventions”, and then blithely wait for the next turn of the same wheel. So how come we don’t start somewhere in that turn of the wheel this year?NGSA results are as good as any. There was a big “to do” about moving from a “test” to an “assessment” that’ll be used to identify areas of weakness (and strength) when the graduated enter secondary school, Grade 7.This year, can’t the Ministry insist the scores of every kid in Grade 7 be made available to the teachers, and that they intervene appropriately?…for procurement?Now that the Procurement Commission has pronounced the $632 million pharma contract to ANSA “broke the law”, is the Government going to ALLOW (much less ensure!) the law to take its course?Orange jumpsuits and silver bracelets, anyone?
On July 19, 1910, the governor of the US state of Washington proclaimed the nation’s first “Father’s Day”. However, it was not until 1972, 58 years after President Woodrow Wilson made Mother’s Day official, that the day became a nationwide holiday in the United States.The “Mother’s Day” we celebrate today has its origins in the peace-and-reconciliation campaigns of the post-Civil War era. During the 1860s, at the urging of activist Ann Reeves Jarvis, one divided West Virginia town celebrated “Mother’s Work Days” that brought together the mothers of Confederate and Union soldiers. In 1870, the activist Julia Ward Howe issued a “Mother’s Day Proclamation” calling on a “general congress of women” to “promote the alliance of the different nationalities, the amicable settlement of international questions, [and] the great and general interests of peace”.However, Mother’s Day did not become a commercial holiday until 1908, when–inspired by Jarvis’s daughter Anna, who wanted to honour her own mother by making Mother’s Day a national holiday–the John Wanamaker department store in Philadelphia sponsored a service dedicated to mothers in its auditorium. Thanks in large part to this association with retailers, who saw great potential for profit in the holiday, Mother’s Day caught on right away. In 1909, 45 states observed the day, and in 1914, President Wilson approved a resolution that made the second Sunday in May a holiday in honour of “that tender, gentle army, the mothers of America”.The campaign to celebrate the nation’s fathers did not meet with the same enthusiasm – perhaps because, as one florist explained, “fathers haven’t the same sentimental appeal that mothers have”. On July 5, 1908, a West Virginia church sponsored the nation’s first event explicitly in honour of fathers, a Sunday sermon in memory of the 362 men who had died in the previous December’s explosions at the Fairmont Coal Company mines in Monongah, but it was a one-time commemoration and not an annual holiday. The next year, a Spokane, Washington woman named Sonora Smart Dodd, one of six children raised by a widower, tried to establish an official equivalent to Mother’s Day for male parents. She went to local churches, the YMCA, shopkeepers and Government officials to drum up support for her idea, and she was successful: Washington State celebrated the nation’s first state-wide Father’s Day on July 19, 1910. Slowly, the holiday spread.In 1916, President Wilson honoured the day by using telegraph signals to unfurl a flag in Spokane when he pressed a button in Washington, DC. In 1924, President Calvin Coolidge urged state governments to observe Father’s Day. However, many men continued to disdain the day. As one historian writes, they “scoffed at the holiday’s sentimental attempts to domesticate manliness with flowers and gift-giving, or they derided the proliferation of such holidays as a commercial gimmick to sell more products – often paid for by the father himself”.During the 1920s and 1930s, a movement arose to scrap Mother’s Day and Father’s Day altogether in favour of a single holiday, Parents’ Day. Every year on Mother’s Day, pro-Parents’ Day groups rallied in New York City’s Central Park – as a public reminder, said Parents’ Day activist and radio performer Robert Spere, “that both parents should be loved and respected together”. Paradoxically, however, the Depression derailed this effort to combine and de-commercialise the holidays. Struggling retailers and advertisers redoubled their efforts to make Father’s Day a “second Christmas” for men, promoting goods such as neckties, hats, socks, pipes and tobacco, golf clubs and other sporting goods, and greeting cards. When World War II began, advertisers began to argue that celebrating Father’s Day was a way to honour American troops and support the war effort. By the end of the war, Father’s Day may not have been a federal holiday, but it was a national institution.In 1972, in the middle of a hard-fought presidential re-election campaign, Richard Nixon signed a proclamation making Father’s Day a federal holiday at last.
Dear Editor,American economist, entrepreneur, and university professor Carl J. Schramm defines a failing city as one that can never expect to return to its former prosperity. He must have been referring to Georgetown, the capital of Guyana.Where else in the world could a municipality owe two contractors more than 0 million for garbage collection services provided over the last two years, and refuse to pay them but expect them to continue working nonetheless?And worse, when they decide to make a payment to these contractors, they do so with rubber cheques that could not be processed because the Council had non-sufficient funds (NSF).To add insult to injury, they then hire an additional contractor, who lacks the tools, equipment and human resource capacity to do the job, in order to create more debt.Where else in the world would a bankrupt municipality rent scores of plastic portable toilets at more than eighty-two thousand dollars, and subsequently more than ninety thousand dollars per month each, rather than buying their own, or building permanent public conveniences?Where else in the world would the only abattoir in the capital city — supposed to ensure that best practices in food hygiene and meat production are maintained — be in such an unclean, decrepit state, and where the animals are bludgeoned to death in such a barbaric manner?Where else in the world would a group of engineers and administrators just sit idly by and watch and dwell in the historic edifice of a City Hall that is crumbling without their doing the slightest of remedial work to save it from falling apart?Georgetown is a failed city that is doing its best to take the country down the toilet — and I don’t mean the ,000 per month portable toilets — with it.Sincerely,Jermain Johnson
Region 10 (Upper Demerara/Berbice) head Renis Morian said the administration of the Regional Democratic Council (RDC) will be moving to secure assets belonging to the President’s Youth Choice, said to be in the hands of privateVLUU L200 / Samsung L200citizens. Morian said he has already written to Permanent Secretary of the Education Ministry Alfred King concerning the issue, which he believes to be very serious. He added that the RDC is awaiting information so that it can move to secure the assets, which are scattered all across the Region. Some of the assets include boats, engines, generators, among other things. “This belongs to the people and Government of Guyana. We at the Regional Democratic Council, we are aware there are outstanding assets in Region 10 belonging to that project that is in the hands of private people. We want the asset list from Mr King. So I’ve already written Mr King and I’m awaiting the list to let us know where these assets are and what are the assets that the RDC could take possession of,” he said. Adding that the process should have been a continuous one, the Regional Chairman noted that by right, at the change of Government, such information should have been made available to the RDC: “Failing to do that, if Mr King fails to do that, at the level of the RDC, we would have to take the appropriate action to make certain that those assets are returned to the Government and the people, one way or the other.”
0Shares0000McLaren’s Spanish driver Fernando Alonso steers his car during Formula One Chinese Grand Prix in Shanghai on April 15, 2018 © AFP/File / Johannes EISELESPA-FRANCORCHAMPS, Belgium, May 5 – Two-time Formula One world champion Fernando Alonso won the Six Hours of Spa-Francorchamps, his first race in the World Endurance Championship, on Saturday driving a Toyota TS050 Hybrid.The Spaniard shared the driving with Kazuki Nakajima of Japan and the Swiss Sebastien Buemi. Alonso has been given permission by his F1 team McLaren to compete in six rounds of the world endurance championship, including the flagship 24 Hours of Le Mans race.Last year the Spaniard missed the Monaco Grand Prix to compete in the Indianapolis 500 as part of his dream of winning motor sport’s Triple Crown of Monaco, the Indy 500 and Le Mans.The 2005 and 2006 F1 champion is sixth in the Formula One drivers’ standings after four races for McLaren after a seventh-place finish in the Azerbaijan Grand Prix.Alonso’s Toyota started Saturday’s race on the front row after a Friday qualifying session marred by the spectacular crash of Brazilian rookie Pietro Fittipaldi.Fittipaldi was airlifted to a Liege hospital by helicopter before undergoing surgery on two broken legs after his DragonSpeed car swerved wildly coming out of a corner and smacked into a wall head on.The 21-year-old is the grandson of Emerson Fittipaldi, the two-time F1 world champion and twice winner of the Indy 500.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)
Liverpool told to forget about Teixeira signing, Cahill NOT leaving Chelsea, and Leicester set for record striker buy? – Paper review
1 Here are the top transfer-related stories in Saturday’s newspapers…Shakhtar Donetsk chief executive Sergei Palkin has told Liverpool to forget about signing Alex Teixeira before Monday night’s transfer deadline, unless they are prepared to pay the attacker’s €70million buy-out clause in full. (Liverpool Echo)Leicester City are close to landing Chelsea striker Loic Remy in a club record deal after the Blues accepted a £11.5m bid for the French striker. (Daily Star)Chelsea captain John Terry, 35, will be given the opportunity to stay at the club beyond the end of his playing career in either a coaching or ambassadorial role. (The Times)Blues boss Guus Hiddink has insisted Gary Cahill is NOT for sale and revealed the defender is not looking to leave the London club after holding talks with him. (Evening Standard)Atletico Madrid are offering Chelsea 29-year-old striker Jackson Martinez in a desperate bid to land 27-year-old Diego Costa before Monday’s deadline. (The Sun)Tottenham are ready to offer manager Mauricio Pochettino a new improved contract to ward off Chelsea and Manchester United. (Daily Mirror)Leicester are also in talks over a £12m deal for AC Milan striker M’Baye Niang, 21. (Corriere delle Sera) However it is also reported Milan have rejected the approach from the Premier League leaders and have insisted that the France Under-21 international is not for sale. (The Guardian)Watford are prepared to pay Liverpool £3m to sign 19-year-old striker Jerome Sinclair and spend £4m on Fiorentina’s 28-year-old defensive midfielder Mario Suarez. (Daily Star)Swansea have made a £7m offer to Crystal Palace for struggling striker Dwight Gayle. (Daily Mail)Newcastle are close to signing Atletico Madrid full-back Guilherme Siqueira, 29, on loan. (Sky Sports)Sunderland striker Steven Fletcher, 28, is attracting interest from West Ham. (Daily Telegraph)Everton and Republic of Ireland midfielder Aiden McGeady, 29, is mulling over a move to Sevilla in La Liga following initial loan offers from Leeds United, Blackburn Rovers and Sheffield Wednesday. (The Guardian)And here are the latest talkSPORT.com headlines…?Andros Townsend holds no grudges against Tottenham as he vows to make immediate Newcastle impactChris Powell on Roland Duchatelet, Charlton’s struggles and his career in footballRoma to battle Sevilla for Tottenham defender Federico FazioTottenham transfer news: £7m target reveals he could leave Mainz for the Premier LeagueLeicester transfer news: Foxes in talks over £12m deal for AC Milan striker Sunderland transfer news: Black Cats agree £8.5m deal for Bordeaux ace Wahbi KhazriNorwich and West Ham joined by Genoa in battle Inter Milan defenderEverton transfer report: Toffees fail with £13m move for Sporting Lisbon strikerLeicester transfer blow! Foxes miss out on Eder as Inter Milan swoopLiverpool transfer news: Jurgen Klopps targets Roma midfielder Leandro Paredes Transfer rumours and paper review
6 Adam Lallana scores a 95th minute winner which sees Liverpool beat Norwich 5-4 at Carrow Road. Sebastien Bassong’s 92nd minute equaliser looked to have secured the Canaries a draw, but the Reds clinched all three points – capping one of many exhilarating performances under Jurgen Klopp 6 6 Jurgen Klopp’s first full year as Liverpool manager has seen highs and lows, and plenty of memorable moments.2016 has seen the Reds lose two finals, score plenty of goals, and become a side competing for the Premier League title.So, what have been some of the best moments of this year for the Anfield club?Click the right arrow, above, to scroll through talkSPORT’s top five Liverpool pictures of 2016, which capture some truly memorable times… The 2016/17 season started in fine style for Liverpool, with them sitting second in the Premier League heading into Christmas. One of the performances of the season was September’s 2-1 win over Chelsea, which was won by Jordan Henderson’s long-range screamer. A truly world class goal, it is worth watching time and time again Fan power rose to the fore in February, as Anfield saw its first walkout in its 132-year history. Supporters left the ground in protest at a proposed ticket price increase, and the action resulted in the changes being prevented Another injury time winner for Liverpool, this time from Dejan Lovren, whose goal sent the Reds through to the Europa League semi-finals. Twice needing three goals on the night to beat Borussia Dortmund, Lovren’s header from James Milner’s cross completed one of the most memorable Anfield nights ever 6 6 West Brom honoured the families of the Hillsborough victims, ahead of the visit of Liverpool in May. The Baggies replaced 96 seats in the visitors area with red chairs, each bearing a name of one of the victims. Every seat remained unoccupied during the match 6 Liverpool won ANOTHER Merseyside derby in April, thrashing local rivals Everton 4-0. That defeat for the Toffees was compounded when Ramiro Funes Mori was dismissed for a straight card – a sight which every Liverpool fan will have a chuckle at
Sarri wants Chelsea to keep Willian at the club Every time Ally McCoist lost it on air in 2019, including funny XI reactions REVEALED huge blow Which teams do the best on Boxing Day in the Premier League era? Ronaldo warned Lukaku how hard scoring goals in Serie A would be before Inter move RANKED no dice Forbes list reveals how much Mayweather, Ronaldo and Messi earned this decade MONEY ADVICE BEST OF Oxlade-Chamberlain suffers another setback as Klopp confirms serious injury REVEALED Latest Football News 2 The Camp Nou club tried to sign him last summer, but their three bids, including one of £55m, were turned down in July.Willian has struggled to discover his best form this season and has contributed just four goals in 31 appearances, leaving many Chelsea fans frustrated with his performances and believing now would be the best time to cash in on the 30-year-old who joined the Blues in August 2013.However, Sarri has urged the club to keep hold of the player, but the Italian wants Willian to find net more consistently and work on his movement off the ball. Where Ancelotti ranks with every Premier League boss for trophies won Son ban confirmed as Tottenham fail with appeal to overturn red card Willian has been told to improve by Maurizio Sarri Top nine Premier League free transfers of the decade “I didn’t receive anything yesterday,” Sarri said at his press conference. “You have to ask the club! I have no idea.“Of course I don’t want to lose him. Willian is very important for us so I think it’s impossible to lose him in January.“He can do better because the potential is high. Usually he wants the ball to his feet.“He can improve on his movements without the ball, and he has the potential to score more.”The Chelsea boss also discussed the possible signing of Gonzalo Higuain from Milan, and the problems his team have been having in front of goal in recent months. 2 Maurizio Sarri says Willian will not be allowed to leave Chelsea this month but he wants the Brazil winger to improve.Chelsea are believed to have a rejected a player-plus-cash offer of £50million and Malcom from Barcelona, who have reignited their interest in the Brazilian winger. “As you know very well I am not in control of the transfer market,” Sarri added. “In my opinion we need two players, but then it is up to the club.“We need to score, of course. We need to solve this problem. In the last match we played very well, with continuity.“With a great performance from the physical point of view, but we didn’t score.“Now we have this problem. We need to solve this problem.”